Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 1-6
Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Potable Water Supplied by DWASA in Dhaka City of Bangladesh
A. H. M. Shofiul Islam Molla Jamal, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Aminul Ahsan, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shamim Ahmed, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shakila Akter, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Rokaia Sultana, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Aynun Nahar, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Ripaj Uddin, Institute of National Analytical Research and Service (INARS), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Received: Dec. 30, 2019;       Accepted: Jan. 10, 2020;       Published: Feb. 4, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20200601.11      View  469      Downloads  137
Abstract
Dhaka is the largest and fastest-growing urban city in Bangladesh with a population density of 44,500/km2. Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is the sole legal entity to develop and maintain a water supply system for city people. 78% DWASA water comes from underground—which leads to incremental depletion of groundwater. In this condition, reducing groundwater dependence and switching to surface water is the only way forward. Growing and increasingly wealthier population, climate change and the urbanization process deteriorate the Shitalakshya River which is the surface water source of DWASA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the DWASA supplied water quality around Dhaka city. Physicochemical and microbiological Parameters were analyzed by American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods. The measured pH value (6.58-7.03) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) value (6.10-7.50 mg/L) of samples indicate safe potable water. Calcium and Magnesium were found at a significant level. Both of these elements are essential for the human body. There were no heavy metals contamination in water supplied by DWASA. Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms of all samples showed less than 0.2 MPN/mL (most probable number <0.2 indicates absence of test organism in 1 mL). Total Viable Count (TVC) of all samples were less than 100 cfu/mL. The observed result was compared to acceptable limit of drinking water of Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (BSTI) and Environment Conservation Rules, 1997, Bangladesh guideline. This study demonstrated that in general the potable water quality status of Dhaka city ranged from excellent to good.
Keywords
Bangladesh, Potable Water, Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metals, Microbiological Parameters
To cite this article
A. H. M. Shofiul Islam Molla Jamal, Md. Aminul Ahsan, Shamim Ahmed, Shakila Akter, Rokaia Sultana, Aynun Nahar, Md. Ripaj Uddin, Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Potable Water Supplied by DWASA in Dhaka City of Bangladesh, American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20200601.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
N. J. Zinia, P. McShane, "Ecosystem services management: An evaluation of green adaptations for urban development in Dhaka, Bangladesh," Landscape and urban planning, vol. 173, pp. 23-32, May 1, 2018.
[2]
Available from https://dDWASA.org.bd/[last accessed on 2019 November 11].
[3]
S. Xiao, X. Lv, Y. Zeng, T. Jin, L. Luo, B. Zhang, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, Y. Zhu, T Tang, "Mutagenicity and estrogenicity of raw water and drinking water in an industrialized city in the Yangtze River Delta," Chemosphere, Vol. 185, pp. 647-55, Oct 1, 2017.
[4]
M. Eda, S. Okino, R. Yoshiyama, H. Sakurai, N. Ukai, H. Suzuki, H. Nakashoji, S. Yoshioka, inventors; "Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Engineering Ltd, assignee. Water treatment process and water treatment system, "United States patent US 10,160,671. Dec 25, 2018.
[5]
J. N. Hakizimana, B. Gourich, M. Chafi, Y. Stiriba, C. Vial, P. Drogui, J. Naja, "Electrocoagulation process in water treatment: A review of electrocoagulation modeling approaches, " Desalination, vol. 404, pp. 1-21, February 17, 2017.
[6]
S. Zhang, S. W. Gitungo, L. Axe, R. F. Raczko, J. E. Dyksen, "Biologically active filters–an advanced water treatment process for contaminants of emerging concern,” Water research, Vol. 114, pp. 31-41, May 1, 2017.
[7]
Available from http://www.jwrc-net.or.jp/aswin/en/newtap/report/NewTap_037.pdf [last accessed on 2019 November 11].
[8]
S. Ledakowicz, R. Żyłła, K. Paździor, J. Wrębiak, J. Sójka-Ledakowicz, "Integration of ozonation and biological treatment of industrial wastewater from dye house," Ozone: Science & Engineering, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 357-65, September 3, 2017.
[9]
R. Fares, A. Aissa, A. Bouadi, M. Lounis. "Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Addition of Activated Carbon Powder (CAP),” J Waste Recycle, vol. 3, no. 1 (2), 2018.
[10]
M. B. Ahmed, J. L. Zhou, H. H. Ngo, W. Guo, N. S. Thomaidis, J. Xu. "Progress in the biological and chemical treatment technologies for emerging contaminant removal from wastewater: a critical review,” Journal of hazardous materials vol. 323, part -A pp. 274-98, February 5, 2017.
[11]
M. A. Mahmud, K. A. Hussain, M. Hassan, A. R. Jewel, S. Z. Shamsad, "Water quality assessment using physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations of circular rivers in and around Dhaka city," Bangladesh. International Journal of Water Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23-9, June 7, 2017.
[12]
M. Islam, M. Uddin, S. Tareq, M. Shammi, A. Kamal, T. Sugano, M. Kurasaki, T. Saito, S. Tanaka, H. Kuramitz,"Alteration of water pollution level with the seasonal changes in mean daily discharge in three main Rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh," Environments, vol. 2, no. 3, pp-280-94, 2015.
[13]
C. P. Rampley, P. G. Whitehead, L. Softley, M. A. Hossain, L. Jin, J. David, S. Shawal, P. Das, I. P. Thompson, W. E. Huang, R. Peters, "River toxicity assessment using molecular biosensors: Heavy metal contamination in the Turag-Balu-Buriganga river systems, Dhaka, Bangladesh," Science of the Total Environment, vol. 703 ( 134760), October 31, 2019.
[14]
S. M. Didar-Ul Islam, G. Azam, "Seasonal variation of physicochemical and toxic properties in three major Rivers; Shitalakhya, Buriganga and Turag around Dhaka city, Bangladesh," Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 120-131, 2015.
[15]
L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, A. D. Eaton, editors. "Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater," 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1998.
[16]
M. A. Ahsan, F. Satter, M. A. Siddique, M. A. Akbor, S. Ahmed, M. Shajahan, MA. R. Khan, "Chemical and physicochemical characterization of effluents from the tanning and textile industries in Bangladesh with multivariate statistical approach,” Environmental monitoring and assessment. vol. 191, no. 9 (575) September 1, 2019.
[17]
M. A. Ahsan, M. A. Siddique, M. A. Munni, M. A. Akbor, U. H. Bithi, M. Y. Mia. "Analysis of major heavy metals in the available fish species of the Dhaleshwari River, Tangail, Bangladesh,” Int J Fish Aquat Stud, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 349-54, 2018.
[18]
Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Standards_and_Testing_Institution [Last accessed on 2019 November 11].
[19]
DoE "The Environment conservation Rules: Schedule 3, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh" Ministry of Environment & Forest, 1997.
[20]
F. Kožíšek, "Health significance of drinking water calcium and magnesium,” Environmental Research Section, vol. 1, no. 84, pp. 219-27, February, 2003.
[21]
H. M. Kalibbala, R. Kaggwa, O. Wahlberg, E. Plaza, "Characteristics of natural organic matter and formation of chlorination by-products at Masaka waterworks," Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 511-519, 2011.
[22]
A. A. Cuthbertson, S. Y. Kimura, H. K. Liberatore, R. S. Summers, D. R. Knappe, B. D. Stanford, J. C. Maness, R. E. Mulhern, M. Selbes, S. D. Richardson. "Does granular activated carbon with chlorination produce safer drinking water? From disinfection byproducts and total organic halogen to calculated toxicity,” Environ. Sci. Technol, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 5978-99, May 21, 2019.
[23]
J. Hu, W. Chu, M. Sui, B. Xu, N. Gao, S. Ding S, "Comparison of drinking water treatment processes combinations for the minimization of subsequent disinfection by-products formation during chlorination and chloramination," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 335, pp. 352-61, March 1, 2018.
[24]
R. Jiao, R. Fabris, C. W. Chow, M. Drikas, J. van Leeuwen, D. Wang, Z. Xu. "Influence of coagulation mechanisms and floc formation on filterability,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 338-45, July 1, 2017.
[25]
E. Balladares, O. Jerez, F. Parada, L. Baltierra, C. Hernández, E. Araneda, V. Parra, "Neutralization and co-precipitation of heavy metals by lime addition to effluent from acid plant in a copper smelter," Minerals Engineering, vol. 122, pp. 122-29, June, 2018.
[26]
E. S. Agudosi, E. C. Abdullah, N. M. Mubarak, M. Khalid, M. Y. Pudza, N. P. Agudosi, E. D. Abutu, "Pilot study of in-line continuous flocculation water treatment plant,” Journal of environmental chemical engineering, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 7185-91, December 1, 2018.
[27]
C. Bertelli, S. Courtois, M. Rosikiewicz, P. Piriou, S. Aeby, S. Robert, J. F. Loret, G. Greub, "Reduced chlorine in drinking water distribution systems impacts bacterial biodiversity in biofilms," Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 9, Article. 2520, 2018.
Browse journals by subject